There are a number of requirements associated with Visa issuance that vary by country. These are largely based on international agreements and any visa issuance fees foreign countries choose to charge US applicants. The most significant issue that varies by country is E visa availability, the other is the possibility of a visa issuance fee.

E Visa Availability

The US State Department publishes two tables that give information about E1 Treaty Trader Visa and E2 Treaty Investor Visa reciprocity. For convenience, our E visa immigration lawyers have combined these tables into the chart below.

List of E-1 and E-2 Treaty Countries:

CountryClassificationEffective DateValidity PeriodNumber Of EntriesVisa Reciprocity Fee
AlbaniaE-2January 4, 199836 MonthsMultipleNone
ArgentinaE-1December 20, 185460 MonthsMultipleNone
ArgentinaE-2December 20, 185460 MonthsMultipleNone
ArmeniaE-2March 29, 199660 MonthsMultipleNone
AustraliaE-1December 16, 199148 MonthsMultipleUSD 3,574.00
AustraliaE-2December 27, 199148 MonthsMultipleUSD 3,574.00
AustraliaE-3September 2, 200524 MonthsMultipleNone
AustriaE-1May 27, 193160 MonthsMultipleUSD 31.00
AustriaE-2May 27, 193160 MonthsMultipleUSD 31.00
AzerbaijanE-2August 2, 20013 MonthsOneNone
BahrainE-2May 30, 20013 MonthsOneNone
BangladeshE-2July 25, 19893 MonthsOneNone
BelgiumE-1October 3, 196360 MonthsMultipleUSD 420.00
BelgiumE-2October 3, 196360 MonthsMultipleUSD 420.00
BoliviaE-1November 09, 186260 MonthsMultipleNone
BoliviaE-2June 6, 20013 MonthsOneNone
Bosnia and HerzegovinaE-1November 15, 198212 MonthsMultipleNone
Bosnia and HerzegovinaE-2November 15, 198212 MonthsMultipleNone
BruneiE-1July 11, 185341 MonthsNone
BulgariaE-2June 2, 195460 MonthsMultipleUSD 162.00
CameroonE-2April 6, 198912 Months
Less than 12 Months
USD 240.00
USD 60.00
CanadaE-1January 1, 199460 MonthMultipleUSD 40.00
CanadaE-2January 1, 199460 MonthsMultipleUSD 40.00
ChileE-1January 1, 200460 MonthsMultipleUSD 265.00
ChileE-2January 1, 200460 MonthsMultipleUSD 265.00
China (Taiwan)E-1November 30, 194860 MonthsMultipleNone
China (Taiwan)E-2November 30, 194860 MonthsMultipleNone
ColombiaE-1June 10, 194860 MonthsMultipleNone
ColombiaE-2June 10, 184860 MonthsMultipleNone
Congo (Brazzaville)E-2August 13, 19943 MonthsOneNone
Congo (Kinshasa)E-2July 28, 19893 MonthsTwoNone
Costa RicaE-1May 26, 185260 MonthsMultipleUSD 291.00
Costa RicaE-2May 26, 185260 MonthsMultipleUSD 291.00
CroatiaE-1November 15, 198260 MonthsMultipleUSD 395.00
Croatia E-2November 15, 198260 MonthsMultipleUSD 395.00
Czech Republic E-2January 1, 199360 MonthsMultipleUSD 22.00
DenmarkE-1July 30, 196160 MonthsMultipleNone
DenmarkE-2December 10, 200860 MonthsMultipleNone
Ecuador E-2May 11, 19973 MonthsNone
EgyptE-2June 27, 19923 MonthsOneNone
EstoniaE-1May 22, 192660 MonthsMultipleNone
EstoniaE-2February 16, 199760 MonthsMultipleNone
EthiopiaE-1October 8, 195360 MonthsMultipleNone
EthiopiaE-2October 8, 195360 MonthsMultipleNone
FinlandE-1August 10, 193424 MonthsMultipleUSD 292.00
FinlandE-2December 1, 199224 MonthsMultipleUSD 292.00
FranceE-1December 21, 196025 MonthsMultipleNone
FranceE-2December 21, 196025 MonthsMultipleNone
GeorgiaE-2August 17, 199712 MonthsMultipleNone
GermanyE-1July 14, 195660 MonthsMultipleNone
GermanyE-2July 14, 195660 MonthsMultipleNone
GreeceE-1October 13, 195460 MonthsMultipleNone
GrenadaE-2March 3, 198960 MonthsMultipleNone
HondurasE-1July 19, 192860 MonthsMultipleUSD 195.00
HondurasE-2July 19, 192860 MonthsMultipleUSD 195.00
IrelandE-1September 14, 195060 MonthsMultipleNone
IrelandE-2November 18, 199260 MonthsMultipleNone
IsraelE-1April 3, 195452 MonthsMultipleNone
IsraelE-2May 1, 201924 MonthsMultipleNone
ItalyE-1July 26, 194960 MonthsMultipleUSD 308.00
ItalyE-2July 26, 194960 MonthsMultipleUSD 308.00
JamaicaE-2March 7, 199760 MonthsMultipleNone
JapanE-1October 30, 195360 MonthsMultipleNone
JapanE-2October 30, 195360 MonthsMultipleNone
JordanE-1December 17, 20013 MonthsOneNone
JordanE-2December 17, 20013 MonthsOneNone
KazakhstanE-2January 12, 199412 MonthsMultipleNone
Korea (South)E-1November 7, 195760 MonthsMultipleNone
Korea (South)E-2November 7, 195760 MonthsMultipleNone
KosovoE-1November 15, 188212 MonthsMultipleNone
KosovoE-2November 15, 188212 MonthsMultipleNone
KyrgyzstanE-2January 12, 19943 MonthsTwoNone
LatviaE-1July 25, 192860 MonthsMultipleNone
LatviaE-2December 26, 199660 MonthsMultipleNone
LiberiaE-1November 21, 193960 MonthsMultipleNone
LiberiaE-2November 21, 193912 MonthsMultipleNone
LithuaniaE-2November 22, 200112 MonthsMultipleNone
LuxembourgE-1March 28, 196360 MonthsMultipleNone
LuxembourgE-2March 28, 196360 MonthsMultipleNone
Macedonia E-1November 15, 198260 MonthsMultipleNone
Macedonia E-2November 15, 198260 MonthsMultipleNone
MexicoE-1January 1, 199412 MonthsMultipleUSD 42.00
MexicoE-2January 1, 199412 MonthsMultipleUSD 42.00
MoldovaE-2November 25, 19943 MonthsTwoNone
MongoliaE-2January 1, 199736 MonthsUSD 65.00
MontenegroE-1November 15, 188212 MonthsMultipleNone
MontenegroE-2November 15, 188212 MonthsMultipleNone
MoroccoE-2May 29, 199160 MonthsMultipleNone
NetherlandsE-1December 5, 195736 MonthsMultipleUSD 2,228.00
NetherlandsE-2December 5, 195736 MonthsMultipleUSD 2,228.00
New ZealandE-1June 10, 201960 MonthsMultipleNone
New Zealand E-2June 10, 201960 MonthsMultipleNone
NorwayE-1January 18, 192860 MonthsMultipleUSD 400.00
NorwayE-2January 18, 192860 MonthsMultipleUSD 400.00
OmanE-1June 11, 19606 MonthsMultipleNone
OmanE-2June 11, 19606 MonthsMultipleNone
PakistanE-1February 12, 196160 MonthsMultipleNone
PakistanE-2February 12, 196160 MonthsMultipleNone
PanamaE-2May 30, 199160 MonthsMultipleNone
ParaguayE-1March 07, 186060 MonthsMultipleNone
ParaguayE-2March 07, 186060 MonthsMultipleNone
PhilippinesE-1September 6, 195560 MonthsMultipleUSD 813.00
PhilippinesE-2September 6, 195560 MonthsMultipleUSD 662.00
PolandE-1August 6, 199412 MonthsMultipleNone
PolandE-2August 6, 199412 MonthsMultipleNone
RomaniaE-2January 15, 199460 MonthsMultipleNone
SenegalE-2October 25, 199012 MonthsMultipleNone
SerbiaE-1November 15,188212 MonthsMultipleNone
SerbiaE-2November 15,188212 MonthsMultipleNone
SingaporeE-1January 1, 200424 MonthsMultipleNone
SingaporeE-2January 1, 200424 MonthsMultipleNone
Slovak RepublicE-2January 1, 1993None
SloveniaE-1November 15, 198260 MonthsMultipleUSD 345.00
SloveniaE-2November 15, 198260 MonthsMultipleUSD 345.00
SpainE-1April 14, 190360 MonthsMultipleUSD 314.00
SpainE-2April 14, 190360 MonthsMultipleUSD 234.00
Sri LankaE-2May 1, 199336 MonthsMultipleNone
SurinameE-1February 10, 196360 MonthsMultipleNone
SurinameE-2February 10, 196360 MonthsMultipleNone
SwedenE-1February 20, 199224 MonthsMultipleNone
SwedenE-2February 20, 199224 MonthsMultipleNone
SwitzerlandE-1November 08, 185548 MonthsMultipleUSD 235.00
SwitzerlandE-2November 08, 185548 MonthsMultipleUSD 235.00
ThailandE-1June 8, 19686 MonthsMultipleUSD 15.00
ThailandE-2June 8, 19686 MonthsMultipleUSD 15.00
TogoE-1February 5, 196736 MonthsMultipleUSD 210.00
TogoE-2February 5, 196736 MonthsMultipleUSD 210.00
Trinidad & TobagoE-2December 26, 199660 MonthsMultipleNone
TunisiaE-2February 7, 199360 MonthsMultipleNone
TurkeyE-1February 15, 193360 MonthsMultipleNone
TurkeyE-2May 18, 199060 MonthsMultipleNone
UkraineE-2November 16, 19963 MonthsTwoNone
United Kingdom E-1July 03, 181560 MonthsMultipleNone
United KingdomE-2July 03, 181560 MonthsMultipleUSD 105.00
YugoslaviaE-1November 15, 1882
YugoslaviaE-2November 15, 1882

How to Find Which E Visa Issuance Fee Apply in Your Case?

There are generally two non-immigrant visa issuance fees:

(1) the non-immigrant visa application fee (MRV fee); and
(2) the Reciprocity Fee.

While the MRV fee is always payable, the Reciprocity fee is not.

Reciprocity Fees vary by country and visa type, they also frequently change. You can find out if a visa reciprocity fee is applicable in your case by following this link to the US State Department’s website to the US Visa: Reciprocity and Civil Documents by Country page.

  1. Select your country from the list of countries.
  2. Select the visa you are applying for and any visa issuance fee will be displayed

Country Specific Footnotes

  1. China (Taiwan) - Pursuant to Section 6 of the Taiwan Relations Act, (TRA) Public Law 96-8, 93 Stat, 14, and Executive Order 12143, 44 F.R. 37191, this agreement which was concluded with the Taiwan authorities prior to January 01, 1979, is administered on a nongovernmental basis by the American Institute in Taiwan, a nonprofit District of Columbia corporation, and constitutes neither recognition of the Taiwan authorities nor the continuation of any official relationship with Taiwan.

  2. Czech Repubilc and Slovak Republic - The Treaty with the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic entered into force on December 19, 1992; entered into force for the Czech Republic and Slovak Republic as separate states on January 01, 1993.

  3. Denmark - The Treaty which entered into force on July 30, 1961, does not apply to Greenland.

  4. France - The Treaty which entered into force on December 21, 1960, applies to the departments of Martinique, Guadeloupe, French Guiana and Reunion.

  5. Japan - The Treaty which entered into force on October 30, 1953, was made applicable to the Bonin Islands on June 26, 1968, and to the Ryukyu Islands on May 15, 1972.

  6. Netherlands - The Treaty which entered into force on December 05, 1957, is applicable to Aruba and Netherlands Antilles.

  7. Norway - The Treaty which entered into force on September 13, 1932, does not apply to Svalbard (Spitzbergen and certain lesser islands).

  8. Spain - The Treaty which entered into force on April 14, 1903, is applicable to all territories.

  9. Suriname - The Treaty with the Netherlands which entered into force December 05, 1957, was made applicable to Suriname on February 10, 1963.

  10. United Kingdom - The Convention which entered into force on July 03, 1815, applies only to British territory in Europe (the British Isles (except the Republic of Ireland), the Channel Islands and Gibraltar) and to "inhabitants" of such territory. This term, as used in the Convention, means "one who resides actually and permanently in a given place, and has his domicile there." Also, in order to qualify for treaty trader or treaty investor status under this treaty, the alien must be a national of the United Kingdom. Individuals having the nationality of members of the Commonwealth other than the United Kingdom do not qualify for treaty trader or treaty investor status under this treaty.

  11. Yugoslavia - The U.S. view is that the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) has dissolved and that the successors that formerly made up the SFRY - Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Slovenia, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia continue to be bound by the treaty in force with the SFRY and the time of dissolution.

  12. The E-3 visa is for nationals of the Commonwealth of Australia who wish to enter the United States to perform services in a "specialty occupation." The term "specialty occupation" means an occupation that requires theoretical and practical application of a body of highly specialized knowledge, and attainment of a bachelor's or higher degree in the specific specialty (or its equivalent) as a minimum for entry into the occupation in the United States. The definition is the same as the Immigration and Nationality Act definition of an H-1B specialty occupation.

  13. Bolivia - Bolivian nationals with qualifying investments in place in the United States by June 10, 2012 continue to be entitled to E-2 classification until June 10, 2022. The only nationals of Bolivia (other than those qualifying for derivative status based on a familial relationship to an E-2 principal alien) who may qualify for E-2 visas at this time are those applicants who are coming to the United States to engage in E-2 activity in furtherance of covered investments established or acquired prior to June 10, 2012.

  14. Ecuadorian nationals with qualifying investments in place in the United States by May 18, 2018 continue to be entitled to E-2 classification until May 18, 2028. The only nationals of Ecuador (other than those qualifying for derivative status based on a familial relationship to an E-2 principal alien) who may qualify for E-2 visas at this time are those applicants who are coming to the United States to engage in E-2 activity in furtherance of covered investments established or acquired prior to May 18, 2018.

  15. Israel: Pursuant to a treaty of friendship, commerce, and navigation between the United States and Israel that entered into force on April 3, 1954 entitled nationals of Israel to E-1 status for treaty trader purposes. Nationals of Israel are not entitled to E-2 classification for treaty investor purposes under that treaty. Public Law 112-130 (June 8, 2012), accords nationals of Israel E-2 status for treaty investor purposes if the Government of Israel provides similar nonimmigrant status to nationals of the United States. The Department has confirmed that Israel offers reciprocal treaty investor treatment to U.S. nationals and E-2 visa may be issued to nationals of Israel beginning on May 1, 2019.

  16. New Zealand: Public Law 115-226, enacted on August 1, 2018, accorded nationals of New Zealand to E-1 and E-2 status for treaty trader/treaty investor purposes if the Government of New Zealand provides similar nonimmigrant status to nationals of the United States. The Department has confirmed that New Zealand offers similar nonimmigrant status to U.S. nationals and E visas may be issued to nationals of New Zealand beginning on June 10, 2019.

What is an E1 Visa?

An E1 Visa is a nonimmigrant visa which allows foreign nationals of a treaty country to enter the U.S. to engage in international trade activities. Its purpose is to facilitate trade between the U.S. and the treaty countries, thereby promoting economic and cultural ties.

What is an E2 Visa?

The E2 Treaty Visa, on the other hand, allows foreign nationals of a treaty country to make a substantial financial investment in an existing business, a franchise business, or to set up a new business in the U.S. The cost of E2 Visa necessarily includes the investment, which must be made before applying for an E2 Visa.

E-1 and E-2 Employees Visa

Once the principal treaty trader or treaty investor has obtained their visa after going through the E2 Visa process, there is a chance that they may ask for visas of qualifying employees. As it currently stands, there are two types of visas for E1 and E2 employees: Executives and Managers, and Specialist or Essential Skilled Workers.

Executives and Managers

Employees who are executives and managers should be going to the U.S. to develop and direct the trade or investment of the principal trader or investor. Although it's not required that they have worked for the principal trader or investor for at least a year, they should still be able to show their executive or managerial background.

Specialist or Essential Skilled Workers

It is somewhat harder for specialist or essential skilled employees to obtain this visa as they need to show the following:

  • That a qualified U.S. worker can't fulfil the position;

  • That their employment is necessary for the running of the principal trader or investor's business in the U.S; and

  • That U.S. workers will have to be trained to replace the treaty national.

E-2 visa for Non-Treaty Country Citizens

The E1 and E2 Visa requirements include that the investor must be a national of at least one of the E-2 treaty countries to be able to obtain an E2 Visa. If you're not a national of these treaty countries yet you want to obtain the said visa, you can qualify in two ways: 1) by being a citizen of the treaty country, or 2) by being married to a citizen of a treaty country.

Determining the Capacity of E2 Employees

Executive and Supervisory Employees

According to 9 FAM 402.9-7(B), different factors must be considered by adjudicating officers when evaluating the executive and supervisory capacity of E2 employees:

First, the title of the position of the applicant, its place in the organizational structure, the job duties of such position, and the degree of control and responsibility the employee will have on the overall business operations of the E2 business. Moreover, the adjudication officer will review whether the employee will supervise other employees or whether they have the qualifying experience for the position.

Second, the adjudication officer will check the executive or supervisory element of the employee's position, whether it's a principal or an incidental function. They will determine if the employee's job description principally requires management skills or supervising the business operations or if such function is only incidental to the job position.

Finally, the adjudication officer will give weight to various factors such as position titles whether the E2 employee bears the position of "vice president" or "manager. This title, however, may bear small significance if the employee is from a 2-person office.

Specialists and Essential Skilled Employees

Meanwhile, 9FAM 402.9-7(C) provides for the different factors the adjudication officer must consider when determining the capacity of specialist and essential skilled employees.

To consider the skills to be specialized, such skills must be needed by the business. The rule of thumb is that the employee has skills essential to the operations of the business in the U.S. and they are primarily responsible for the effectiveness of the business' operations.

To be considered essential, on the other hand, isupon the discretion of the adjudicating officer. This can be decided by different tests and is assessed by the facts of each application.

Once the business needs specific skills, the adjudication officer must determine whether they are specialized and the employee must prove that they possess such skills. When assessing, there are different factors used by the officer to determine if the applicant possesses these skills such as their experience, the uniqueness of the skill, availability of U.S. workers with the same skills, and the degree of expertise of the employee among others.

Ordinary workers can also qualify as essential employees. For example, startups or new businesses in the U.S. may need employees who are ordinarily skilled for a period. Their essential is determined by their familiarity with the business operations rather than their skills.

Please take note that previous employment in the business is not required to determine if the employee is considered a specialist or essential skill. The rule of thumb is the need of the business on the skills of the employee. The employee may submit any relevant and supporting documents to prove the speciality or essential nature of their skills.

The employee must also prove and establish not only at the time of the visa application but also for the period such skills are needed that they possess the required skills. The E2 enterprise may need their skills either for the long-term or the short-term.


If you want to obtain an E Visa, you must be a national of a country with a treaty of commerce and navigation a qualifying international agreement with the U.S., or a country deemed qualified by legislation. However, if you're a national of a non-treaty country, there are still options which you can try to qualify for the E Visa.

If you are having trouble determining the right visa for you, Davies & Associates has a team of immigration lawyers who can help determine the right and perfect visa option based on your goals and needs.

The E2 Treaty Investor Visa and the E-1 Treaty Trader Visa are popular choices for people who want to move to the United States to run a business. Under these programs, eligible business owners can establish a business of their choosing or can opt to invest in/purchase an existing business. The business owner’s spouse can also apply to work in the U.S.
While there's no minimum investment for an E2 visa the US State Department advises consulates to look for an investment of around USD $100,000 - not necessarily all in cash. Unfortunately, E Visas are not automatically available for everyone.

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Eranjan Venura Parua
Eranjan Venura Parua
2 months ago

"After finding D&A through an internet search in 2020, my wife and I had several free consultations with David Cantor. Despite our initial attempt at filing for our E2 visa independently ending in failure, we decided to hire D&A for their expertise and support. Over the course of four long years, Verdie and Cristina were incredibly patient as we took our time to prepare for the E2 submission. Verdie became our E2 Attorney in 2021, and from the start, Verdie and Cristina's patience was evident. Despite our intermittent engagement over the years, they always treated us with the utmost attention. Working with Verdie and the D&A team was a pleasure; their professionalism and support were unwavering. Verdie's calm demeanor and succinct communication style made navigating the process much smoother, even during complex discussions. I wholeheartedly recommend Verdie and D&A - Davies & Associates, to anyone seeking an immigration law firm who can efficiently handle their case with precision and without unnecessary fanfare. Their ability to get things done speaks volumes about their dedication to their clients' success."

Jeremy Abernathy
Jeremy Abernathy
4 months ago

I had the pleasure of working with Verdie and Nessa to obtain my E2 Visa. Their in-depth knowledge and experience allowed me to be fully prepared in my application and they were able to answer all questions leading up to the Visa interview.

Saeed Muhammad
Saeed Muhammad
5 months ago

Verdie was an amazing attorney, providing exceptional client care throughout the process. He had a great depth of knowledge in all areas on business visas in the US.

Satyabrat Chowdhury
Satyabrat Chowdhury
8 months ago

I had a great experience with Davies & Associates. They are very thorough in the approach and their have experts in this field who know the domain very well.I would certainly be leaning onto them for any future needs as well.

Christine Envall
Christine Envall
a year ago

Getting my E2 Visa was a very in-depth process that took just over a year from when I committed to it, but 8 months from when I found a business I wanted to purchase. The only reason I'm giving 4 and not 5 stars is because the timeframe was a lot longer than expected from the initial information. Aside from the timing, Verdie and his team led me through the Visa process, providing all the guidance I needed to be successful, including advising me on the RIGHT type of Visa to suit my goals. Within the process I purchased a business and the greater Davies team included lawyer Rinat who helped me put the deal together. One of the biggest parts was my Business Plan which created from my info by Ana Ortiz, who did an incredible job. The process is certainly tedious and Verdie & Christina were always there to answer my questions, provide suggestions and advice and ensure I had all the documents I needed to support my application. I appreciated their patience with my questions and their advice and in the end, the application was so thorough the interview process was quick and easy. I highly recommend Davies & Associates and look forward to working with them again when it's time to renew my Visa.

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