E2 Visa USA | E2 Treaty Investor Visa | E Visa Attorney - Davies & Associates The E2 Treaty Investor Visa and the E-1 Treaty Trader Visa are popular choices for people who want to move to the United States to run a business. Under these programs, eligible business owners can establish a business of their choosing or can opt to invest in/purchase an existing business. The business owner’s spouse can also apply to work in the U.S.
While there's no minimum investment for an E2 visa the US State Department advises consulates to look for an investment of around USD $100,000 - not necessarily all in cash. Unfortunately, E Visas are not automatically available for everyone.

E1 Treaty Trader Visa - US Visa Lawyers Only citizens of E Visa eligible countries (referred to as E Treaty Countries) can take advantage of the E visa program. Even if your country of citizenship is not on the list, you may still be able to come to the U.S. using the E visa program if you first become a citizen of an E-2 Treaty country. The team of immigration lawyers at Davies & Associates works with clients in both obtaining citizenship of an E2 Treaty Country, and then filing the E2 visa application.

E-2 Visa Eligibility for Investors Not from E2 Countries

If you are a citizen of a non-E2 treaty country including China, India, Nigeria, Russia, South Africa, or Vietnam, you cannot apply for an E-2 Treaty Visa directly. Instead, you must first become a citizen of an E-2 Treaty Country.

There are many countries on the list from which you could choose. In fact, when choosing one of these E-2 Treaty Countries, you may be able to complete the entire process in less than a year.

There are several ways to obtain a Citizenship for an E2 visa treaty country.

  • Citizenship through Donation
  • Citizenship by Bank Deposit
  • Citizenship by Investment
  • Citizenship through Ancestry
  • Citizenship through Special Association
  • Citizenship Through Residency

If you obtain a citizenship through a “financial investment”, US law now requires you to be “domiciled” in that country for three (3) years before applying for an E visa. In most countries “domicile” does not mean “resident”. There are other ways to circumnavigate this domicile requirement, please contact our office for details.

Davies & Associates helps clients obtain citizenship in these and other E2 countries so they can then pursue their E2 status in the U.S.

Citizenship by Donation: Grenada, Armenia and Egypt

Citizenship by Donation:
Grenada, Armenia and Egypt

Only three E visa countries offer citizenship by donation.

US law requires those applying for an E visa through citizenship obtained through a “financial Investment” to be domiciled in that country for three (3) years. The natural meaning of “donation” clearly does not encompass the concept of a financial investment.

Citizens of Grenada who obtained Citizenship by donation may also transmit nationality to their spouse. A spouse of a Grenadian Citizen obtains nationality through a completely separate law which has nothing do to with either donation or investment and is eligible for a US E visa.

While Grenadian law explicitly states that a donation is not a “Financial Investment” the laws of Armenia and Egypt are less clear.

Country Donation Required Language Required Processing Time Dual Nationality Allowed
Armenia* USD 100,000 - USD150,000 TBC TBC Yes
Egypt USD 250,000 Arabic 9 -9 months Yes
Grenada USD 150,000 None 3-4 months Yes

*Armenia has applied to become an EU Member State.

The Maltese Citizenship by Donation program has been permanently retired.

Citizenship by Bank Deposit: Turkey, Bulgaria and Egypt

Citizenship by Bank Deposit:
Turkey, Bulgaria and

Citizenship by Bank Deposit is the lesser known of the mechanisms for obtaining citizenship by investment. Commissions for Citizenship by Investment on the other hand can exceed USD $100,000.

Citizenship by Bank Deposit has a number of advantages:

  • You are in control of your money and withdraw it whenever you wish to, although doing so may cause a loss of your citizenship.
  • For Turkey it is possible to hold the deposit in USD, avoiding the risks of local currency. Egypt requires deposits to be held in Egyptian pounds.
Country Deposit Required How Long Does the Deposit Need to be Maintained E1, E2 or both Initial E2 Visa Validity Period* Number of Entries for E2
Turkey USD 500,000 3 years Both 5 years Multiple
Egypt USD 750,000 5 years E2 Only 3 months (can be renewed) 1
Egypt USD 1,000,000 3 years E2 Only 3 months (can be renewed) 1
Bulgaria EUR 1,000,000** 5 years E2 Only Multiple 60 Months

* While the US E2 visa validity period may be as short as 3 months persons entering the United States on an E2 visa are usually admitted for an extendable period of 2 years. This 2 year rule applies regardless of the E2 visa validity period.

** Initially a sum of EUR 500,000 is deposit for one year during which time the applicant is a permanent resident of Bulgaria. After 1 year another 500,000 is deposited in return for Bulgarian Citizenship.

Citizenship by Investment: Grenada, Turkey, Montenegro, Jordan, Austria, and Singapore

Citizenship by Investment:

Grenada, Turkey, Montenegro, Jordan, Austria, and Singapore

In December 2022 a new law required persons who obtained their E visa qualifying citizenship through “a financial investment” to be domiciled in the applicable country for three (3) years before being eligible to apply for an E2 visa. What constitutes “domicile” for this purposes will likely vary by country of nationality but could potentially involve minimal actual residency in that country.

The restriction does NOT seem to apply to those who obtained their citizenship by donation

Grenadian Citizens who obtained their Citizenship by marriage to a Grenadian Citizen do not appear to be impacted by this new law. Nothing seems to prevent one partner obtaining a Grenadian Citizenship through investment and that person’s spouse then obtaining citizenship based on marriage to a Grenadian. Grenada is unique as most other countries impose a residency requirement on spouses obtaining citizenship through marriage.

Country Investment Required Language Required Processing Time Dual Nationality Allowed
Austria EUR 6 Million Austrian 12 months No
Bulgaria* EUR 1 Million None 2 years Yes*
Egypt USD 250,000 None 6-9 months Yes
Grenada USD 150,000 None 3-4 months Yes
Jordan USD 1 Million No No Yes
Montenegro Program Suspended Program Suspended Program Suspended Program Suspended
Program Suspended USD 400,000 No 1-4 months Yes

* Only native-born citizens, citizens of the EU, EEA and Switzerland and spouses of Bulgarian citizens are allowed dual nationality.


Pursuing a Grenada-U.S. E-2 Visa means you will first become a citizen of this stunning, Caribbean nation known for its stable government and white, sandy beaches. Citizens of this English-speaking country enjoy visa-free travel to more than 153 countries, including the U.S., the U.K., China, and the EU Schengen countries

The Grenada citizenship E-2 Visa generally starts with either a donation of $150,000 or an investment of at least $220,000 in government-approved real estate, meeting certain investment timing and other maintenance requirements.

All Grenadian CBI applications are ultimately approved by the Grenadian Prime Minister.

Our Grenadian immigration lawyers and E2 visa citizenship by investment lawyers are familiar with Grenadian E2 requirements and can assist clients with this option

Learn more about the Grenada E-2 Visa process here.


Turkish Citizens are eligible to apply for an E2 visa.

Turkey offers a variety of Turkish Citizenship by investment options, including making an investment in government bonds. Another Turkish option involves investment in an applicable development project. For a comprehensive list of Turkish Citizenship by Investment Programs please fillow this link.

Unfortunately, all of the Turkish options involve a financial investment and require three (3) years of domicile in Turkey before applying for an E2 visa USA.

Many of these options also involve holding an investment in Turkish Lira. In recent years the Turkish Lira has been subject to substantial currency devaluation.


Another popular option to obtain E-2 status in the U.S. was pursuing citizenship in the western Balkans nation of Montenegro. This country’s government has applied for membership in the European Union and has implemented an opportunity for non-citizens to obtain citizenship by making real estate investments and monetary donations. The minimum required amounts vary, depending on whether the applicant is investing in a more-developed or less-developed part of the country. This program was scheduled to expire on December 31, 2021, but was extended through December 31, 2022.

As of the time of writing the Montenegrin Passport through CBI option will permanently expire at the end of 2022 and will no longer be available.

Learn more about the time-limited Montenegro citizenship by investment program here.


Each year a small number of our Indian clients obtain Singaporean Nationality through the “family office” option which requires and investment of USD 200 Million. As these clients usually become domiciled in Singapore for at least three years before obtaining Singaporean Nationality they qualify for an E2 under the US-Singapore treaty.

Citizenship by Special Association: Israel and Certain Portuguese Colonies

Citizenship by Special Association: Israel and Certain Portuguese Colonies


Portuguese law recognizes the right of persons born in a former Portuguese colony to claim Portuguese Citizenship. As long as the births are registered in Portugal the right to Portuguese nationality can continue up to three (3) generations.

In the case of India, this means person born in the former Portuguese colony of Goa. In the case of Brazil this effectively includes a large percentage of the Brazilian population. Other former Portuguese colonies include Angola, Mozambique, Macau and Cape Verde.

In December 2022 Portugal became an E2 and E1 treaty investor country. This potentially grants Indians born in Goa, Brazilians and their decedents to the third generation the right to an E2 and E1 visa Status.

Davies & Associates has a Portuguese immigration lawyer in Lisbon, Portugal who is familiar with Goa-based Portuguese Citizenship applications and Brazilian claims to Portuguese Citizenship.


Israel offers generous Citizenship options for certain individuals.

The Israeli Law of Return allows these with Jewish mothers and grandmothers and gentiles including those who converted to Judaism to qualify for dual Israeli citizenship. As of 2022, around 1,300,000 Russian Citizens have naturalized as Israeli Citizens, or a staggering 15% of the Israeli population.

As of May 2019 has become an E-2 treaty country and E-1 treaty trader country. While applicants not resident in Israel may not be able to process for an E visa at the US consulate in Tel-Aviv other consulates are willing to accept these cases.

More details at this link.

Citizenship by Descent: Italy and Southern Europe

Many countries offer some form of Citizenship by descent.

Ireland has a generous law which allows nationality through grandparents born in Ireland. Hungary allows you to trace ancestry back 150 years. Poland allows applicants to reach back to great-grandparents born in Poland. Italy has no limit on how far back ancestry can be traced. Davies & Associates has a team of Italian immigration lawyers and Portuguese immigration lawyers who are able to assist.

Citizenship by Descent tends to be especially generous in Southern European Countries and includes Italy, Spain, Portugal and a number of other nations.

Processing times in Citizenship by descent cases can be lengthy but for persons who qualify this can be a very cost-effective route to a US E2 visa.

If you can trace ancestry to the citizen of an E visa country please contact our office

Click here to visit our Italian citizenship by decent webpage.

Citizenship through Residency

A number of E2 treaty investor and E1 treaty trader countries operate Residency by Investment programs.

Country E2, E1 or Both Minimum Investment Processing Time for Permanent Residency (“PR”) Language Requirements for Citizenship Dual Nationality Allowed? Years of PR to Citizenship and E visa Eligibility
Albania E Only Purchase 50% ownership of any property (no minimum) 3 months Basic Albanian Yes 5 years
Argentina Both USD 150,000 3 years Spanish Yes 2 years
Australia Both UD 2.5 Million 12 Months Basic English Yes 4 years by application
Austria Both EUR 40,000 1-3 Months German No 10 years
Canada Both CAD 100,000 (PNP) 12-31 Months English or French Yes 3 Years in a 5 Year Period
Ireland Both EUR 500,000 9-12 months None Yes 5 years
Italy Both EUR 250,000 3-4 Months Italian (Level B1 or higher) Yes 10 years (lower for EU citizens)
Latvia Both EUR 50,000 1-3 Months Latvian Yes 5 years (resident in Latvia for 4)
Luxembourg Both EUR 500,000 6 months Basic Luxembourgish Yes 5 Years
New Zealand Both NZD 2,500,000 8-9 Months Conversational English Yes 5 Years
Panama E2 only USD 100,000 30 days Spanish No 5 Years (Nationals of other Latin Countries and Spain Can be Faster)
Portugal Both EUR 280,000 18 months Basic Portuguese Yes 5 years
Singapore Both SGN 2,500,000 9-12 Months English, Malay, Mandarin or Tamil No 2 years
Spain Both EUR 500,000 20 days Spanish No but contact as as there are exceptions 10 Years EXCEPT Citizens for former Spanish Colonies and Sephardic Jews (2 years)
Switzerland Both CHF 250,000 6 Months German, French or Italian (by area of residency) Yes Currently unclear
Thailand Both THB 600,000 2-3 Months Basic Thai Yes 10 years, possible exceptions applies
United Kingdom Both Please contact us, the UK programs are currently in flux Please contact us, the UK programs are currently in flux Basic English Yes Please contact us, the UK programs are currently in flux

Russian Nationals and CIS Countries

Certain countries have special arrangements allowing for certain nationals to easily obtain a residency permit and permanent residency. For example, Russian Nationals can relatively easily obtain residency and Citizenship in Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Kirgizstan, and Georgia. All of these are E2 visa treaty countries.

The Right E2 Visa Immigration Attorney Can Make a Difference

At Davies & Associates, we believe it’s important to choose the right E2 visa lawyer.

If your home country is not on the E-2 Treaty Countries list and you are considering the E-2 Visa for Grenada or another option to obtain your E-2 status in the U.S., you should choose an immigration attorney who is knowledgeable about current consulate practices. Your lawyer should also be prepared to offer advice, guidance, and other considerations as you begin the application process.

In some cases, it will be most advantageous to begin the Visa application process in your home country; in other situations, applying through a consulate in Grenada, Turkey, Montenegro, or another country offering citizenship by investment (CBI) may be a better option. Sometimes, the U.S. consulate in a country other than your home country or target CBI may accept your application, too.

Choosing an immigration attorney who has significant experience helping clients with situations similar to yours can provide added peace of mind as you embark on your journey to move to the U.S. under the E-2 program.

Tax Considerations

In addition to evaluating the CBI program differences in various countries as you pursue E-2 status, it’s also important to consider the potential tax implications of various options. In fact, there can be significant tax benefits if you understand the tax framework and rules.

When selecting an attorney to advise and help you with the E-2 program, choose a lawyer and firm with a background or with access to qualified tax professionals who can help you understand your options and the tax implications/benefits associated with each.

Choose D&A for CBI Advice and Services

Davies & Associates helps clients obtain U.S. residency and citizenship under the E-2 program, assisting with every step from the CBI application process in a treaty country to obtaining E-2 status, applying for ‘green cards,’ and ultimately pursuing U.S. citizenship. In fact, we’ve been a leader in this area of immigration law since the Grenada and Turkish CBI programs began.
We stand apart from the competition in several ways

  • We are an independent law firm acting in your interests.
  • We are NOT a visa agent and are free of the conflicts of interests which visa agents are subjected to.
Specialist E-Visa and Citizenship Lawyers
  • We have one of the largest specialist E visa application teams of any US law firm and our history of success is second to none.
  • We are not a visa agency and have specialist citizenship lawyers licensed in multiple countries including the UK, Italy, India, Portugal, USA, Singapore, Philippines and others.
History of Success, Second to None
  • Our dedicated E-2 team has significant experience successfully obtaining E-2 visas through citizenship by investment for clients whose home countries are not on the E-2 Treaty Countries list.
Local Presence, Global Service.
  • Our firm has a presence across the globe and is able to deliver service in multiple international locations.
  • We hold a full Grenada CBI agent license — a requirement under current Grenadian law. We are also proud to be the first law firm in the U.S. to succeed in helping a client obtain E-2 status based on their donation in Grenada.
  • We also have a physical presence in Turkey. Our team of experienced attorneys in Istanbul help clients obtain their Turkish citizenship by investment so the clients can pursue E-2 status in the U.S.
  • We maintain strict confidentiality standards.  As a law firm your information is subject to attorney-client confidentiality.  While governments and tax authorities can compel your confidential information from visa agents and financial advisors information held by a law firm cannot be compelled.

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Eranjan Venura Parua
Eranjan Venura Parua
2 months ago

"After finding D&A through an internet search in 2020, my wife and I had several free consultations with David Cantor. Despite our initial attempt at filing for our E2 visa independently ending in failure, we decided to hire D&A for their expertise and support. Over the course of four long years, Verdie and Cristina were incredibly patient as we took our time to prepare for the E2 submission. Verdie became our E2 Attorney in 2021, and from the start, Verdie and Cristina's patience was evident. Despite our intermittent engagement over the years, they always treated us with the utmost attention. Working with Verdie and the D&A team was a pleasure; their professionalism and support were unwavering. Verdie's calm demeanor and succinct communication style made navigating the process much smoother, even during complex discussions. I wholeheartedly recommend Verdie and D&A - Davies & Associates, to anyone seeking an immigration law firm who can efficiently handle their case with precision and without unnecessary fanfare. Their ability to get things done speaks volumes about their dedication to their clients' success."

Jeremy Abernathy
Jeremy Abernathy
5 months ago

I had the pleasure of working with Verdie and Nessa to obtain my E2 Visa. Their in-depth knowledge and experience allowed me to be fully prepared in my application and they were able to answer all questions leading up to the Visa interview.

Saeed Muhammad
Saeed Muhammad
6 months ago

Verdie was an amazing attorney, providing exceptional client care throughout the process. He had a great depth of knowledge in all areas on business visas in the US.

Satyabrat Chowdhury
Satyabrat Chowdhury
8 months ago

I had a great experience with Davies & Associates. They are very thorough in the approach and their have experts in this field who know the domain very well.I would certainly be leaning onto them for any future needs as well.

Christine Envall
Christine Envall
a year ago

Getting my E2 Visa was a very in-depth process that took just over a year from when I committed to it, but 8 months from when I found a business I wanted to purchase. The only reason I'm giving 4 and not 5 stars is because the timeframe was a lot longer than expected from the initial information. Aside from the timing, Verdie and his team led me through the Visa process, providing all the guidance I needed to be successful, including advising me on the RIGHT type of Visa to suit my goals. Within the process I purchased a business and the greater Davies team included lawyer Rinat who helped me put the deal together. One of the biggest parts was my Business Plan which created from my info by Ana Ortiz, who did an incredible job. The process is certainly tedious and Verdie & Christina were always there to answer my questions, provide suggestions and advice and ensure I had all the documents I needed to support my application. I appreciated their patience with my questions and their advice and in the end, the application was so thorough the interview process was quick and easy. I highly recommend Davies & Associates and look forward to working with them again when it's time to renew my Visa.

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